The term muzhik, or moujik Russian: According to the Russkaya Pravdaa princely smerd had limited property and personal rights.
Alexander Nevsky in the Golden Horde.
After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century, the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgariathe last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centered at Phanagoria. The Mongols held Russia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital at Sarai one of the largest cities of the medieval world.
The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly called Tatars ;  but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans.
In general, the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished,  while the Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh. To the Orthodox Church and most princes, the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Russian way of life than the Mongols.
Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who, hoping to profit from the Russian collapse since the Mongol invasions, tried to grab territory and convert the Russians to Roman Catholicism.
Under Mongol occupation, Russia also developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization. Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state.
A major factor in the ascendancy of Moscow was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords, who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Russian principalities.
Its head, the Metropolitanfled from Kiev to Vladimir in and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow under the original title of Kiev Metropolitan. By the middle of the 14th century, the power of the Mongols was declining, and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke.
Inat Kulikovo on the Don Riverthe Mongols were defeated,  and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Russia, it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III who laid the foundations for a Russian national state.
Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniafor control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins. A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Europe, Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles.
Refusing further tribute to the Tatars, Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Hordenow divided into several Khanates and hordes.
Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes.
The manor system provided a basis for an emerging cavalry based army. In this way, internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state. By the 16th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property.
Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories,  but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs.
Gradually, the Russian ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. Biographer Fennell concludes that his reign was "militarily glorious and economically sound," and especially points to his territorial annexations and his centralized control over local rulers.4.
The peasantry made up by far the largest section, most living in small communities scattered across the empire. 5. Russian society was intensely patriarchal, with men dominant in most spheres of decision-making and women denied many legal and civil rights.
A Glance at the Troubled History and Timeline of Russian Czars. They ruled for nearly years. Here is a brief history and timeline of the Russian tsars or Czars. The Czars did not wish to end the feudal system.
As they were afraid of losing power, capitalism was verboten. Most of the Czars were autocratic rulers. Although, the.
Russian Feudal Hierarchy Russian feudal hierarchy was quite different than the European feudal hierarchy where a strong and immense central power was created as a result of the feudal system.
On the other hand, the scenario was quite different in Russia, where to develop a strong feudal system a powerful central force was created.
As the subsequent events showed, Semeke wasn't going to observe the contract with the Russian Empire and made attacks on the Bashkir and Russian citizens. Threat of Dzungaria induced influential feudal lords of the Average juz repeatedly address to Russia . History of serfdom "Galician slaughter" , by Jan Lewicki (); The eradication of the feudal system marks the beginning of an era of rapid change in Europe.
Serfdom only existed in central and southern areas of the Russian Empire. It was never established in . In contrast, Soviet historians assert that the feudal era in the East Slavic lands lasted from the inception of Kyivan Rus’ in the 9th–10th century AD to the abolition of serfdom in the Russian Empire in